Friday, March 17, 2017

Producing a better secure electoral voting system

Here is the complete procedure to make a secure voting system.

We require a unique key for every voter.

The unique key is generated by using:
1) Public Key: Voter Id or Adhaar Number
2) Private key: A random key (6-8 character alphanumeric key) from mind, at the time of voting
3) Vote symbol

A read-only machine generates a unique key using the cryptographic function on the public key, private key and vote symbol.

Then ballot paper is printed from the machine that has the unique key.

The voter casts its vote in the ballot paper.

The votes in ballot paper are counted using a machine and also the scan of the ballot paper is uploaded on the website after results are declared.
Machine learning has become so powerful that it can count the vote without any error.

When the result is declared the public can check whether that ballot paper (that has the unique key) exists on the website with the correct voting symbol. The voter can authenticate that his/her vote has been counted.

1) Completely secure: As the machine that generates the unique code is read-only, nothing is stored in the machine.
Only one can manipulate by stealing the voted paper ballots. But if they do it, it can be known as these ballot papers are uploaded on the website. People can review their votes by using their random unique key.

2) Fast: As counting is done by machine, it is also a fast method. You can use as many numbers of machines to count.
3) Secure of identity: It also keeps the identity of the voter secure.

Even EVM like machine can be used and votes can be published online for review by people, provided the unique key is printed in the VVPAT slip.
And the vote symbol in EVM machine is stored with linking the random key.
(Perhaps an extra attachment is required that stores unique key linked to the vote symbol instead of vote counter )

The private key or the vote slip should be kept secret by the voter if they want to keep their voting secret.


The unique key with its vote symbol can be published online in form of PDF after the counting is done.

In the case of discrepancy, a voter must produce the private key in court (along with VVPAT slip) if the published result i.e. unique key and the vote symbol don't match together. The court can take the private key, public key and vote symbol and generate the unique key to check whether the claim of unique key belongs to the person, and vote symbol linked with is correct or not.

Another way of fraud is adding a new unique hash key which voter has not generated. To tackle it a copy of all generated unique hash key without the votes are stored in a different machine along with its hard copy per booth. The machine should shuffle the unique hash keys before displaying or printing so that one can't make a prediction of voter identity by using booth row sequence and unique hash keys sequence.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Why we face difficulty to remember non-concrete information?

What are the functions of a brain?

Pattern recognition, interpretation and storing of information that we get from our sense organs

I would go with following steps to show that non-concrete information is the type of information that our brain is not trained for. The most requirement to remember abstract information is more recent when mathematics and different languages were invented.

The invention of writing that allowed storing information that we can't remember.

The human being invented abstract information like more than one language or mathematics which we are evolutionarily unfit to remember.

Are we evolutionary unfit to memorize abstract information? Do prove it lets look the following experiment.

The brain is good at recognizing things in a span of seconds. For example, we change our path if there is a hindrance in front. But if you close your eyes, we will miss details of the hindrance.

Let's try to memorize this map in a span of seconds or minutes. Can you do it?

Memorizing abstract information requires the lot of details that need to be stored, along with their associations. 
But concrete ideas requires imagining outlines of things without the details in it.

We discovered abstract mathematical ideas by writing, as we can't remember the complete process of derivation that goes in mind. 
 e.g. The Abel–Ruffini theorem was nearly proved by Paolo Ruffini spanning 500 pages. Can he do that without using pen and paper? 

Writing helps to store information without the need to stress the brain for memorizing all abstract steps. Writing helps to keep the record which we can later look at it.

What makes something concrete?
It's a familiar pattern that makes something concrete. When you imagine the features of your friend, what you will first imagine is characteristics of humans, like nose, ears, eyes, but without much details. Details are not the familiar pattern which you are acquainted with during your childhood. Similarly, you can recall A-Z in sequence because you are familiar with the pattern from your childhood. But if you randomize the sequence, you can no more recall it. Most formulas, equations, new words don't form a familiar pattern, that makes us into trouble to memorize. A nonfamiliar pattern is made concrete after so much of retrieval practice e.g. it takes about a year to memorize A-Z in sequence by a child so that (s)he can retrieve it effortlessly.

Why is familiarity with absurdness helps you to remember things easily?

Take the example you have seen a fake inverted tree in your garden. You will memorize it for a very long time. Shocking things are easy to memorize. Unfamiliar patterns are junk for us, but shocking familiar patterns makes us feel that something is wrong with it, which lets us to become more cautious and curious about the things, that is required for making right decisions.

Using this strategy to teach grammar:

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Country needs an independent news analysis institution to provide feedback to media

How to analyze news and what shall be the criteria?

Are the information provided backed by the evidence?

Do they site down the evidence in the news?
Do evidence are from reliable sources with rigorous testing?
Does the news show one-sided or biased views without looking at all angles?
Is the information provided is an opinion/belief/viewpoint or hypothesis or scientific theory?

Opinion: a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.

Does the hypothesis/claim is well tested and is statistically significant to draw the conclusion?

Alternate and Null Hypothesis

Is media promoting pseudoscience?

Does the discussion done come under any of the logical fallacy?

For more detailed explanation of logical fallacy with examples is given in

Important details for Evaluating a News Article:

Line by line scripts of news taking context into consideration must be analyzed along with bulk analysis by data scientists.

The independent institute should open source the analysis to public so that it can be audited and reviewed by third parties. It should also come under RTI.

The institute will provide feedback to the media so that they can improve upon themselves.