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Suggestions for changes in lessons of NCERT Chemistry book

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Chemistry Book:

NCERT Chemistry book requires a complete reinvention, with eliminating most units that are unrequired at the higher secondary level and making it more systematic with the flow of information and building new connections by using prior information.
e.g. How quantum mechanical model is linked with explaining the properties of elements and molecules? And before explaining the quantum mechanical model, it's needed to explain what are model and theories.
From Britannica:
Scientific modeling, the generation of a physical, conceptual, or mathematical representation of a real phenomenon that is difficult to observe directly. Scientific models are used to explain and predict the behavior of real objects or systems and are used in a variety of scientific disciplines.

The Higher secondary level is meant to know the basics first with the foundational understanding of the mechanism of concepts in detail. It should be relevant to students day to day life to know their surrounding…

Experimental manipulation after tests using eSALT feedback from students

Personalized pre and post test need to be conducted in the following manner with experimental manipulation:

While giving questions, each student needs to be asked for how easy or difficult the questions are.

Student Feedback for Questions Ease (eSALT):
1) Easy (E)
2) Safe (S)
3) Average (A)
4) Low (L)
5) Trouble (T)

Teachers curation
1) Students making mistakes with Questions tagged Easy, Safe, Average comes under misconceptions which need to be dealt with.
2) Concepts of questions that are tagged with Low and Trouble (it doesn't matter whether student solved it correctly or not) should be explained again to the student. If a student has solved correctly even after tagging it as Low or Trouble than the student need be asked for the cause of trouble along with solving the trouble.

Explaining and clearing doubts can be done in groups in the class as well as in individual level. Grouping can be done based on the overall type of feedback you get from all students.

Spaced Practice
All questio…

NCERT books nothing more than short notes with giving too shallow knowledge

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Comparative analysis of Openstax chemistry book and our NCERT chemistry book read by largest populated country

Review of chapter Atoms, Molecules and Ions of Openstax and Structure of Atom in NCERT





Openstax starts the chapter with a picture mass spectral analysis. Mass spectrometry is a very important technique to study atomic properties. To make you more curious it talks about the diagnosis of diseases through analysis of molecules in an exhaled breath.


But ncert book image is this:

NO IMAGE

Let's come down to the introduction:

NCERT Chemistry:
The existence of atoms has been proposed since the time of early Indian and Greek philosophers (400 B.C.) who were of the view that atoms are the fundamental building blocks of matter. According to them, the continued subdivisions of matter would ultimately yield atoms which would not be further divisible. The word ‘atom’ has been derived from the Greek word ‘a-tomio’ which means ‘uncut-able’ or ‘non-divisible’. These earlier ideas were mere …

Probability distribution of marks should not be normal.

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What type of variable is the mark, discrete or continuous?
Marks is a discrete random variable that has a finite number of values or a countable number of values.

A continuous random variable has infinitely many values, and those values can be associated with measurements on a continuous scale in such a way that there are no gaps or interruptions.

Requirements for a Probability Distribution
1. ΣP(x) = 1 where x assumes all possible values of marks
2. 0 ≤ P(x) ≤ 1 for every individual value of x

For example, 2000 students gave exams with full marks of 10, the probability distribution of marks to have a normal like curve will have following frequency distribution given in the table.


Marks xFrequency fProbability P(X=x)040.0021230.01152990.049532270.113543990.199554970.248563900.19572510.12558840.0429220.0111040.002



import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import random import numpy as np from collections import Counter, OrderedDict fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 1) od = OrderedDict([(0.0, 4), (1.0, 23…

Producing a better secure electoral voting system

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Here is the complete procedure to make a secure voting system.

We require a unique key for every voter.

The unique key is generated by using:
1) Public Key: Voter Id or Adhaar Number
2) Private key: A random key (6-8 character alphanumeric key) from mind, at the time of voting
3) Vote symbol




A read-only machine generates a unique key using the cryptographic function on the public key, private key and vote symbol.

Then ballot paper is printed from the machine that has the unique key.

The voter casts its vote in the ballot paper.

The votes in ballot paper are counted using a machine and also the scan of the ballot paper is uploaded on the website after results are declared.
Machine learning has become so powerful that it can count the vote without any error.

When the result is declared the public can check whether that ballot paper (that has the unique key) exists on the website with the correct voting symbol. The voter can authenticate that his/her vote has been counted.


Merits:
1) Com…

Why we face difficulty to remember non-concrete information?

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What are the functions of a brain?
Pattern recognition, interpretation and storing of information that we get from our sense organs
I would go with following steps to show that non-concrete information is the type of information that our brain is not trained for. The most requirement to remember abstract information is more recent when mathematics and different languages were invented.
The invention of writing that allowed storing information that we can't remember.
The human being invented abstract information like more than one language or mathematics which we are evolutionarily unfit to remember.
Are we evolutionary unfit to memorize abstract information? To prove it lets look the following experiment.
The brain is good at recognizing things in a span of seconds. For example, we change our path if there is a hindrance in front. But if you close your eyes, we will miss details of the hindrance.

Let's try to memorize this map in a span of seconds or minutes. Can you do it?
Memorizin…

Country needs an independent news analysis institution to provide feedback to media

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How to analyze news and what shall be the criteria?

Are the information provided backed by the evidence?


Do they site down the evidence in the news?
Do evidence are from reliable sources with rigorous testing?
Does the news show one-sided or biased views without looking at all angles?
Is the information provided is an opinion/belief/viewpoint or hypothesis or scientific theory?


Opinion: a view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.
Does the hypothesis/claim is well tested and is statistically significant to draw the conclusion?





Is media promoting pseudoscience?


Does the discussion done come under any of the logical fallacy?

For more detailed explanation of logical fallacy with examples is given in

Important details for Evaluating a News Article:


Line by line scripts of news taking context into consideration must be analyzed along with bulk analysis by data scientists.

The independent institute should open source the analysis to public so that it …
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